Ecotoxicity of nanosized TiO2. Review of in vivo data
This report presents an exhaustive literature review of data on the effect of nanoparticulate TiO2 on algae, higher plants, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and freshwater fish. The aim, to identify the biologically important characteristics of the nanoparticles that have most biological significance, was unsuccessful, no discernable correlation between primary particle size and toxic effect being apparent. Secondary particle size and particle surface area may be relevant to biological potential of nanoparticles, but insufficient confirmatory data exist. The nanotoxicity data from thirteen studies fail to reveal the characteristics actually responsible for their biological reactivity because reported nanotoxicity studies rarely carry information on the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles tested. A number of practical measures are suggested which should support the generation of reliable QSAR models and so overcome this data inadequacy.