Effects of nano carbon black and single-layer graphene oxide on settlement, survival and swimming behaviour of Amphibalanus amphitrite larvae
The effects of two carbon-based nanomaterials, nano-sized carbon black (nCB), and single-layer graphene oxide (GO) on settlement of Amphibalanus amphitrite (Cirripedia, Crustacea) cypris larvae (cyprids) were assessed after 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure. Additionally, the effects of these nanomaterials on the mortality and swimming behaviour of the nauplius larvae (nauplii) of the same organism were determined after 24 and 48 h. The data indicate that nCB is more effective as a potential antisettlement agent than single-layer GO; moreover, nCB did not show any adverse effects on the larvae. The swimming behaviour of II stage nauplii of A. amphitrite exposed to a suspension of nCB was inhibited only at very high nCB concentrations (≥0.5 mg/mL). Single-layer GO, on the contrary, showed lower antisettlement effects and was more active in altering the survival and inhibiting the swimming behaviour of the nauplii. An indication of the toxic or non-toxic mechanisms of the antisettlement properties of both of these nanomaterials is provided by the reversibility of the antisettlement activity. In conclusion, we propose nCB as an innovative antifouling nanomaterial that shows low toxicity towards the model organism (crustaceans) used in this study.