Functional and morphological changes induced in Mytilus hemocytes by selected nanoparticles

Auguste M, Mayall C, Barbero F, Hočevar M, Alberti S, Grassi G, Puntes VF, Drobne D, Canesi L
[ site ] Nanomaterials, 2021

Nanoparticles (NPs) show various properties depending on their composition, size, and surface coating, which shape their interactions with biological systems. In particular, NPs have been shown to interact with immune cells, that represent a sensitive surveillance system of external and internal stimuli. In this light, in vitro models represent useful tools for investigating nano-bio-interactions in immune cells of different organisms, including invertebrates. In this work, the effects of selected types of NPs with different core composition, size and functionalization (custom-made PVP-AuNP and commercial nanopolystyrenes PS-NH2 and PS-COOH) were investigated in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. The role of exposure medium was evaluated using either artificial seawater (ASW) or hemolymph serum (HS). Hemocyte morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and different functional parameters (lysosomal membrane stability, phagocytosis, and lysozyme release) were evaluated. The results show distinct morphological and functional changes induced in mussel hemocytes depending on the NP type and exposure medium. Mussel hemocytes may represent a powerful alternative in vitro model for a rapid pre-screening strategy for NPs, whose utilization will contribute to the understanding of the possible impact of environmental exposure to NPs in marine invertebrates