The interaction between the osteosarcoma cell and stainless steel surface, modified by high-fluence, nanosecond laser pulses
The irradiation of metallic surfaces by high-fluence laser pulses in an oxygen-containing atmosphere inevitably modifies the surface topography, chemistry, and wettability. These modifications significantly influence cell-surface interactions and, consequently, surface biocompatibility. We investigate how surface texturing by high-fluence nanosecond laser pulses from a Nd:YAG laser (wavelength of 1064 nm) influences cell adhesion and morphology with the aim of assessing its impact on initial cell behaviour. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of osteosarcoma cell adhesion, viability, and cell morphology were evaluated after 24-hour exposure to non-treated and laser-textured stainless-steel (AISI 316L) surfaces by fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that this, initial interaction between the cells and the laser-textured surfaces leads to round shaped cells with a smaller footprint. Contrarily, on the non-processed stainless-steel and control-glass surfaces the polygonal, highly elongated, and flattened cells are observed. The cells on the laser-textured surfaces are less dendritic, with short tubular protrusions and an overexpression of extracellular vesicles, which are rarely found on non-treated and control samples. This likely happens due to the formation of nanostructured, high-temperature oxides that are induced by laser ablation. The analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the laser-textured stainless-steel surfaces contain Cr hexavalent oxide, which is more toxic than the native oxide layer on the non-processed samples.